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Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (CAS# 1310-66-3) is an inorganic compound that is available commercially in the monohydrate form (LiOH.H2O), which is considered a strong base.
LiOH monohydrate has good water solubility and is slightly soluble in ethanol. Lithium salts including hydroxides and lithium carbonates are used for a variety of applications, including lithium-ion batteries, lithium greases, dyes, resins, coatings, water treatment, and many other specialty chemicals.
Chemical compound: LiOH
Molecular weight: 41.96
Density @ 20ºC: 1.51 g/cm3
Standard heat of formation -188.9 kcal/mole Standard heat of fusion: -0.867 kcal/mole Specific heat @ 25ºC: 0.453 cal/g/ºC
Primary Chemistry: Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Energy storage: Lithium salts have allowed the development of high-energy-density, nickel‐rich battery technologies that drive the electric vehicle revolution. LiOH is used for the production of both cathode‐active materials and electrolyte systems. Lithium compounds including lithium carbonates are core for the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries.
Greases: Lithium hydroxide monohydrate is used to produce fatty acid‐based thickener systems that offer excellent stability, higher water resistance than sodium‐based greases, and better high‐temperature resistance than calcium‐based greases.
Dyes, colorants, and inks: Lithium hydroxide are used as fluxing agents in inorganic pigments and to increase the brilliance and luminosity of certain pigments and glazes. In inkjet technology, LiOH prevents the development of acidic (low pH) conditions during storage, which adversely affects both the viscosity of the ink and the printer's internal components.
Lab reagents: Due to their strong base nature and high reactivity, LiOHs and other lithium compounds are also used in the production of colorimetric analytical reagents often used in pH, water quality, and chlorine content tests.
Protective coatings: Lithium hydroxide is used in corrosion‐resistant paints and coatings combined with silicates for enhanced adhesion, extended durability, and excellent chemical resistance. In aluminum alloys for aerospace, lithium compounds allow low temperature and short time sealing when used in protective anodized coatings. It also provides self‐healing properties to organic coating systems.
Water Treatment: Lithium hydroxides are strong bases that can be used in cooling water systems for corrosion protection and metal passivations.
Fine and specialty chemicals: Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) as a strong base is used in the production of specialized resins and polymers for the food and protective clothing industries. Lithium salts including hydroxides are also used in the manufacturing of glazing sealants, adhesives, and mastics and the production of agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, flavorings, fragrances, and esterification reactions.
Carbon dioxide scrubbing: Lithium hydroxide has been used for many years as a very efficient absorber of carbon dioxide, in medical applications, underground, underwater, and space applications. The low molecular weight of the lithium salt makes it capable of absorbing approximately 90% of its weight.